M. Vasquez, ‘Trump calls the European Union a «foe» of the United States’, CNN, 16 July 2018. But it also needs to work towards making domestic industries competitive. Ankit Panda, ‘China’s Li Zhanshu to Visit North Korea As Xi Jinping’s Special Representative’, The Diplomat, 5 September 2018. On the other hand, the US president gave assurance of China’s inclusion in the formal replacement of the armistice with a Korean peace treaty.. The best books we reviewed in 2018. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. , In order to sustain this new more visible and strong profile in foreign relations, the Chinese leadership undertook a process of centralizing foreign policy-making, giving Xi Jinping and the CCP greater control to «provide strong support for opening new horizons in China’s diplomacy» ( 为开创对外工作新局面提供坚强保障). 80. Interestingly, at 2018’s summit, China mentioned neither the market-economy topic nor the issue of the arms embargo.. European Union External Action, ‘Joint Statement of the 20th China-EU Summit’, 17 July 2018. Foreign Policy Issued on ... of record of the home state of our Ambassador to China, and a pivotal state in 2018 … Photo: VCG. Scott Snyder & See-won Byun, ‘China’s Multiple Roles in the Korean Drama’, p. 85. Rick Noak, ‘All of Africa is now competing for Chinese money.  Meng was charged with conspiring to violate sanctions on Iran by doing business with Teheran through a subsidiary (Skycom) which she had tried to conceal.  The «Panmunjom Declaration» made explicit reference to a peace treaty among three or four parties (North Korea, South Korea, the United States, and China). 14. Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping 21 October 2018. 36. 62. In particular Samsung called the tariffs «a tax on every consumer who wants to buy a washing machine», while China, being the world’s biggest solar panel manufacturer, complained it would further damage the global trade environment.. HR & Staffing. For more information on China’s new imagined international system see Bradley A. Thayer & John M. Friend, ‘The World According to China’, The Diplomat, 3 October 2018. 41. , Kim Jong Un’s three visits in less than three months – the first in Beijing on March 27-28, the second in Dalian on May 8, following the inter-Korean summit of 27 April, and again in Beijing on June 19-20, in the aftermath of the historical Singapore summit between Kim Jong-un and Donald Trump – were of great symbolic significance for Beijing, and Xi Jinping in particular. On 10 December, Sachs published a story entitled «The war on Huawei» stating that the Trump administration was unfairly targeting Meng Wanzhou. Chinese leaders have also been setting increasingly ambitious goals for the Initiative: from economic development to constructing a «community of shared destiny for all mankind». The commission has a coordinating role between state institutions, but is also tasked with strengthening the CCP’s role, and its general office will likely be equipped with more staff and authority than that of the previous Leading Small Group. The second meeting, on 8 May in Dalian, projected quite strangely the image of an already well-established relationship between the two leaders, despite the fact that it was «newborn», about to prepare for the Kim-Trump meeting. 82. After assuming the leadership of the Party in 2012 and of the state in 2013, Xi left no doubt that he saw the shifting global environment and the relative decline of U.S. power as a strategic window for China to increase its global influence.  As reported by Hu Xujing, editor in chief of the Chinese and English editions of the Global Times, the US was trying to find a way to attack Huawei and destroy its reputation. The region will remain on the Chinese radar for the foreseeable future. Japan was aware that despite the security concerns, the country’s return to economic growth had been in part fueled by the Chinese economy’s growth, and that any sustained economic growth in Japan would necessarily include more, not less, trade and engagement with China. China’s new foreign policy concept—“a community with a shared future for mankind”— was enshrined in the Party constitution.  Moreover, in the majority of cases those projects did not respect EU rules and standards for building large-scale infrastructures, from transportation to energy and communications. The «Chinese characteristics» are frequently used by Chinese leaders to indicate the adaptation of foreign ideologies or concepts to Chinese specific conditions. Share on Twitter. Furthermore, Beijing had not given up the idea of establishing additional sub-regional grouping in both Northern and Southern Europe. Instead of “working toward” he now wants to “lead” the reform of global governance. ‘Qingdao Declaration of the Council of Heads of State of Shanghai Cooperation Organization’, 10 June 2018, (http://eng.sectsco.org/documents). Wang Huning is known as a chief theorist and as the top aide supposedly behind the “China Dream” concept. Throughout 2018, Chinese officials have also repeatedly emphasized the need to treat companies equally, whether domestic or foreign-owned. About 45. This blog series will focus on concrete changes to China’s foreign policy leadership team, institutional structures, budgetary practices and personnel policies as well as of adjustments of its policy approach to Europe. p. 84. 13. Understanding the origins and forces shaping China's foreign policy provides a framework in which to view both the changes and the continuities in Chinese foreign policy from 1949 to the late 1980s. Francesca Congiu & Christian Rossi, ‘China 2017: Searching for internal and international consent’, Asia Maior 2017, pp. When the Far Right Penetrates Law Enforcement. 120. 69. The new Commission held its first meeting on 15 May 2018, shedding light on the top policy-making body for the future country’s diplomacy, as well as its direction. ‘Xi and Kim’s Marriage of Convenience’, Foreign Policy, 22 June 2018. 7. According to specialists and observers, this provided the rationale for Meng Wanzhou’s arrest. In any case, the support of its main ally was probably seen as essential for the redefinition of the North Korean foreign strategy. So far it has signed 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions and is in talks over 12 new or upgraded FTA deals. It also reveals its weaknesses. Francesca Congiu & Christian Rossi, ‘China 2017: Searching for internal and international consent’, pp. Shannon Tiezzi, ‘FOCAC 2018: Rebranding China in Africa’, The Diplomat, 5 September 2018. In a visible break from past practice, state media reports about the conference fail to mention previous leaders and their concepts or even the party leadership, but are full of references to foreign policy projects and concepts developed under Xi. 48. The China-US trade war, and more generally Trump’s attacks against the global system, represented an occasion for China to strengthen its relations with Brussels, despite the growing tensions between the two parties. China U.S. Foreign Policy The Best of 2018. To achieve both goals China has to resort to an active diplomacy (积极外交) while definitively abandoning Deng Xiaoping’s low profile strategy (韬光养晦). 17.  But of utmost importance was the deference showed by Kim Jong Un and the words pronounced by the North Korean leader in his toast to the Chinese president, as reported by the North Korean state news agency KCNA: «It is appropriate that my first trip abroad is in China’s capital, and my responsibility to consider continuing North Korea-China relations as valuable as life». Charlotte Gao, ‘Amid US-China Tensions, Xi and Abe to Meet in Beijing’, The Diplomat, 24 October 2018; 92. Accordingly, Washington launched what the Chinese Ministry of Commerce considered as the «largest trade war in economic history» (经 济史上规模最大的贸易战). 42. See also Brahma Chellaney, ‘China’s debt trap diplomacy’, Project Syndicate, 23 January 2018. Emily Rauhala, ‘North Korea leader meets with Chinese president’s during «unofficial visit» to Beijing’, The Washington Post, 27 March 2018. , The meeting in Beijing was preceded by another bilateral encounter on 12 September during Abe and Xi’s visit to Vladivostok to attend the Eastern Economic Forum. China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. China-North Korea: the long-awaited renewal of the brotherhood alliance, In 2018 Sino-North Korean relations underwent major changes, the most striking of which related to the North Korean leader’s repeated visits to China. Washington imposed three rounds of tariffs on Chinese products, totaling US$ 250 billion worth of goods. , Indeed, in his keynote speech delivered at the opening ceremony, Xi Jinping vowed non-stop effort in continuing the process of «reform and opening-up» and called for people around the world to work together to build a «community with a shared future for mankind» and make Asia and the world peaceful, prosperous and open, since China and the world could not develop without each other. Yun Sun, ‘The State of Play in Sino-DPRK Relations’, 38° North, 5 September 2018. This DW series explores China's rise as a global superpower. 53. On paper, the main achievement of the summit was a Chinese agreement that the World Trade Organization had to be reformed if it was to survive the «Trumpian times». 11. Dipanjan Roy Chaudury, ‘India not to join US-led counter to China’s BRI’, The Economic Times, 7 August 2018. This tendency began with the process of sinization of Marxism (马克思主义中国化) by Mao Zedong, and continued with the affirmation of the «socialism with Chinese characteristics» (中国特色社会主义) with Deng Xiaoping. 99. Click here to subscribe for full access. At the same time, according to Andrei Lankov, one of the world’s leading Korea experts, and director of the Korea Risk Group, visiting China for the third time in such a short period, Kim might be seeking to take advantage of the trade conflict between China and the US, and trying to deepen their rivalry to ensure they could not join forces against him, as happened with UN sanctions over North Korea’s weapons programme. , In the eyes of many international observers China proved to be the biggest winner of the Singapore summit for two main reasons. On the one hand, the agreement adopted by Trump and Kim which granted a de facto dual suspension of North Korean tests and US-ROK joint military exercises (so called «freeze-for-freeze approach») was similar to the proposals that Beijing had been promoting for months.  Not surprisingly Xi Jinping emphasized more the geostrategic importance of the renewed bilateral ties than the Peninsula’s denuclearization. Prosecutors investigated whether Abe, his aide and two executives from his political support group had subsidized the party fees in violation of campaign and election funds laws.  That was a worthy accolade for all of China’s previous efforts, and one that allowed Beijing to save its face, finally. As in the year 2017, in 2018 relations between China and the US presented many ups and downs, with strong deterioration on the commercial side. The US also added them to the Treasury department’s list of specially designated individuals with whom Americans were barred from doing business. In foreign policy the «Chinese characteristics» refer to China’s ambition to shape the global order according to its national interests. The October meeting was a clear demonstration of both sides being able to reach a mutual accommodation, «under the shadow of Trump». Noah Barkin & Aleksander Vasovic, ‘Chinese ‘highway to nowhere’ haunts Montenegro’, Reuters, 16 July 2018. Scott Snyder & See-won Byun, ‘China’s Multiple Roles in the Korean Dra- ma’, Comparative Connections, vol.  Last but not least, Pyongyang might be hoping Beijing would ease up on sanctions following the summits with Seoul and Washington. The China-EU Summit was preceded by Trump’s declarations during an interview with CBS at the President’s golf resort in Turnberry (Scotland) – aired on «Face the Nation» on 15 July – when he defined the European Union as a «foe» of the United States. ‘Xi says China will continue to support free trade’, Xinhuanet, 10 April 2018. In particular, the second part of the year under review was mainly characterized by the open hostility of the Trump administration towards China, as clearly shown by the trade war and the deep-rooted distrust between the two countries in many chapters of their foreign policy agenda, with special reference to the Korean peninsula. Here are 4 things to know’. This article argues that the key question is whether China is about to change its approach to foreign policy, one which has enabled its “peaceful rise” in recent decades. Of even greater importance was the fact that India declined the invitation to be part of a US-led trilateral initiative (including also Japan and Australia), launched on 30 July to fund infrastructure projects in order to counter-balance the BRI in the Indo-Pacific region. Except for one country’, The Washington Post, 3 September 2018. While India and Pakistan argue and fight over the fate of Kashmir, is anyone listening to the Kashmiris? 2. Additionally, they warned that European companies would refuse to sign any contract if China failed to adhere to the European principles of transparency in public procurement, as well as environmental and social standards. 288-290. 98-100. A further step in the consolidation of the renovated Sino-North Korean strategic ties involved Li Zhanshu, chairman of the NPC, who attended the 70th anniversary celebration of the DPRK’s founding in Pyongyang in September, as Xi‘s special representative. 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