Die Makedonische Phalanx war eine schwere Infanterieformation von hoher militärgeschichtlicher Bedeutung für die Staaten der antiken hellenistischen Epoche. By “Greek phalanx” I assume you refer more to the Alexandrian phalanx (same deal, longer sprears, more effective). Republican Rome vs. Macedon(?) Macedonian Phalanx. [5] The secondary weapon was a shortsword called a xiphos. Macedonian phalanx was more powerful but more specialized troops. Greek Soldier; Maniple; Phalanx; What do you think? The phalanx was much more rigid, but overwhelmingly powerful in a frontal assault. Phalanx vs Larynx - What's the difference? [1] The phalangites also had a smaller and flatter shield than that of the Greek hoplon, measuring about 24 inches and weighing about 12 pounds. TL;DR: The Macedonian phalanx had always been vulnerable, but Alexander made sure this wouldn’t get fatally exploited by his enemies. That is simply not true. In June 197, at Cynoscephalae, the Roman commander Titus Quinctus Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V, and the Greek historian Polybius of Megalopolis concluded that this battle was the best example to show that legions were superior to the phalanx. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Ancient Macedonian Period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as pitched battles, until they were ultimately displaced by the Roman legions. XT November 15, 2004, 11:52pm #14. Every soldier held a 16 cubit spear. [1], The phalanx consisted of a line-up of several battalion blocks called syntagmata, each of its 16 files (lochoi) numbering 16 men, for a total of 256 in each unit. The Macedonian phalanx (Greek: Μακεδονική φάλαγξ) is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies. The Macedonian phalanx advantage was protection, but it had disadvantages. The decisive battle happened on flat ground not too far from the site of Thermopylae. Chr.) The Macedonian Phalanx was built to fight against the Greek Phalanx. And hence, it takes a more skilled commander with an integrated army to be able to use it effectively. From the hardened Illyrians in the west, to the Greek city states to the south, none could match Philip’s disciplined sarissa-wielding infantry. Macedonian phalanx, pikes up - a still from Oliver Stone's Alexander. The Macedonian Empire of King Philip II, prior to his victory at Chaeronea in 338 BC. The man on the far right was left partly exposed so the entire right side was left vulnerable and the most likely to be attacked. Games; Referances; Phalanx. check out the. Instead of an aspis they had a much smaller shield. [6], Each file was led and commanded by a dekadarch who were the most experienced Macedonian soldiers and received about triple pay. Product in stock (1) Price €-€ Sort by: Created on Title Title Price Price Product number Product number Created on Created on Products per page 128 128; 68; 32 % Macedonian Phalanx Commander Order.-No. The phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults against it very difficult. A Macedonian Phalanx fighting the Roman legions. As a verb digit is to point at or point out with the finger. The Byzantine skoutatos, heavily armed infantry, carried very long spears of 3,5,4 meters long and trained for battle like the ancient Macedonians. The formation was made up of spearmen carrying 18 to 20 ft (5.5–6 m) long spears. These were called sarissas. Or as the wise man said: "Phillip's gold and not Phillip, conquered the cities of Greece". [2] The rest of the file was filled up by more inexperienced soldiers, often Persians during Alexanders Campaign. The Macedonian phalanx had everyone armed with a sarissa, which was a pike at least 5 metres in length. That is simply not true. In the mighty Phalanx men stood side by side. The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classicalperiods in Greece (ca. [2] The phalanx was divided into taxis based on geographical recruitment differences.[2]. Like the Greek phalanx, only those in the front ranks wore body armour, with the most common protection being a helmet for those in the rear. [2] Philip's military reforms were a new approach to the current hoplite warfare which focused on their shield, the hoplon; his focus was on a new weapon, the sarissa. The maniple was fluid, with each maniple led by centurions who were encouraged to take initiative and lead by example. As an adjective phalangeal is relating to a phalanx. The Greek armies of the Hellenistic period mostly fielded troops in the fashion of the Macedonian phalanx. The Macedonian success was not due to their phalanx's superiority (with the sarissa pike). We have to remember that Alexander’s army only had a small portion of phalangites relative to the rest of the army. Saved by александр. The Macedonian Phalanx The Histories, Book XVIII, Chapters 28-32: In my sixth book I made a promise, still unfulfilled, of taking a fitting opportunity of drawing a comparison between the arms of the Romans and Macedonians, and their respective system of tactics, and pointing out how they differ for better or worse from each other. A Greek phalanx charging into battle, as peltasts throw spears over the heads of the hoplites. Any sources? Reason being is phalangites were meant to hold the enemy lines in place while heavy horse circled in and smashed the rear or flanks. († 336 v. ... An ancient Greek and Macedonian military unit that consisted of several ranks and files (lines) of soldiers in close array with joined shields and long spears. The Macedonian pike phalanx dominated the battlefields of Greece and the Near and Middle East for over two centuries. [4] All of the armor and weaponry a phalangite would carry totaled about 40 pounds, which was close to 10 pounds less than the weight of Greek hoplite equipment. The Romans were the first to truly realize the weakness of the phalanx and the Hoplite. In essence, the range of their counter-weighted sarissa, allowed them superior mobility as well as superior defense and attack abilities despit… Greek Warfare > Phalanx. I posted in that thread a link to comments on the Roman maniple vs. Macedonian phalanx issue from Polybius which are most informative. The Greek Hoplite. [4] The left flank was generally covered by allied cavalry supplied by the Thessalians, which fought in rhomboid formation and served mainly in a defensive role. Not accounting for cavalry and other forces would force me to speculate. As a noun digit is a finger or toe. Phalanx vs Digit - What's the difference? The Macedonian phalanx (Greek: Μακεδονική φάλαγξ) is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies. They never really fought against heavy cavalry that I can tell. Like the Greek phalanx, only those in the front ranks wore body armour, with the most common protection being a helmet for those in the rear. It was one of the most successful infantry formations of the ancient world, only rivalled by the manipular formation of the Roman legions. The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II.It was used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire.The formation was made up of spearmen carrying 18 to 20 ft (5.5–6 m) long spears. The Macedonian Phalanx was built to fight against the Greek Phalanx. [9], "Οι "απόγονοι" της Μακεδονικής φάλαγγας σε Βυζάντιο - Δύση", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Macedonian_phalanx&oldid=995709758, Military units and formations of the Hellenistic world, Military units and formations of ancient Greece, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 13:50. The standard Byzantine phalanx had adopted the Hellenistic system of combat called the Chiliarchy that was generally made up of 650 skutatoi and 350 toxotai. The last great example of maniple and phalanx battle is found at the battle of Pydna during the third Macedonian war between Rome and Perseus. The Macedonian Empire of King Philip II, prior to his victory at Chaeronea in 338 BC. Instead of an aspis they had a much smaller shield. [3] During Alexander's campaign, the phalanx remained more or less the same, with the notable difference being more non-Macedonian soldiers among the ranks. However, it would be far easier for the Greek one to turn around and redeploy, drilled or not; that is incontrovertible. The phalanx used the "oblique line with refused left" arrangement, designed to force enemies to engage with soldiers on the furthest right end, increasing the risk of opening a gap in their lines for the cavalry to break through. In 359 BC, following the Macedonian defeat from the Illyrians, which killed the majority of Macedonia's army and the current King Perdiccas III, Perdiccas' brother Philip II took the throne. [1] The first phalanx was a 10 by 10 square with very few experienced troops. The Macedonian phalanx unlike the traditional Greek Hoplite phalanx was not engineered to defeat its enemy all by itself. The Macedonian pike phalanx dominated the battlefields of Greece and the Near and Middle East for over two centuries. 2) Macedonian Phalanx Was Originally Composed of Semi-Nomadic Herders – The Macedonians had one significant advantage over other southern Greek city-states, and that ironically related to ‘simple living’. Could it have been possible for a traditional Greek Phalanx to defeat the Macedonian phalanx, and win the battle of Chaeronea? In the end, he won because he had enough money to keep an army on permanent war footing and because he had a kingdom instead of a loose alliance of city-states. The Macedonian phalanx wins easily and its not even close regardless of the knight’s equipment, formation, leadership or tactics. Phalanx fighting on a black-figure amphora, c. 560 BC. In the mighty Phalanx men stood side by side. If this is your first visit, be sure to Macedonian Phalanx. Neither Philip nor Alexander actually used the phalanx as their arm of choice, but instead used it to hold the enemy in place while their heavy cavalry broke through their ranks. [4] The shield was made of bronze plated wood and was worn hung around the neck so as to free up both hands to wield the sarissa. I'm often asked questions such as this: The macedonian phalanx didn't just suddenly pop up AFAIK, it was a gradual development from the greek phalanx. [2] Philip called the soldiers in the phalanx pezhetairoi, meaning "foot-companions", bolstering the importance of the phalanx to the king. The Macedonian phalanx was not very different from the Hoplite phalanx of other Greeks states, it was better trained, armed with the sarissa enabling it to outreach its competitors and stave off enemy cavalry, and wore far lighter armor enabling longer endurance and long fast forced marches, including the ability to sprint to close and overwhelm opposing positions and archers. In the Iliad, Homer regularly presents sections of heavy infantry supported by "fire" of light infantry. Must have been pretty intimidating. It was one of the most successful infantry formations of the ancient world, only rivalled by the manipular formation of the Roman legions. The sarissae were carried in two pieces before a battle and then slid together when they were being used. They were covered by half of their shield and half by the soldier next to them's shield. Viewers discretion is advised! After the release of Persians, First Legion are pleased to continue to expand our World of the Greeks figure range with an iconic "Macedonian Phalanx". 750–350 BC) was a formation in which the hoplites would line up in ranks in close order. Phalanx fighting on a black-figure amphora, c. 560 BC. The Macedonian phalanx in the early Hellenistic period was meant to work with cavalry. Ancient History . Peter Connolly captures the action as the phalanx pins and pushes back the Romans on the level ground. The phalanx evolved. Its supremacy over the more static armies fielded by the Greek city-states was shown at the Battle of Chaeronea, where Philip II's army crushed the allied Theban and Athenian phalanxes. They were two-handed; the smaller shields were slung over the left shoulder. The pre-Macedonian hoplite armour was decentrally acquired and always mixed. Discover (and save!) That is one of the main reason that late sparta during it's reforms were changing over there normal hoplites into sarrisa phalanx troops (not completely but some were reformed). His army was never a phalanx army armed with the sarissa. The first line was called the kontarion, the first four lines were made up of skutatoi the remaining three of toxotai. phalanx . Greco Persian Wars Punic Wars Rome Antique Roman Legion Roman Republic. While no single fighting force has ever not been beat, human history is filled with many strong types of soldier, like the Greek Hoplite. The Macedonian Phalanx. Every soldier held a 16 cubit spear. note.] There are historical examples of the Macedonian Phalanx beating the Greek hoplite. These were called sarissas.They were two-handed; the smaller shields were slung over the left shoulder. Well, given that Phillip copied the Theban phalanx and made some changes to its equipment, I wouldn't say that the rest of the Greeks were terrified. As nouns the difference between phalanx and phalangeal is that phalanx is a large group of people, animals or things, compact or closely massed, or tightly knit and united in common purpose while phalangeal is (anatomy) a phalange (bone of a finger or toe). TL;DR: The Macedonian phalanx had always been vulnerable, but Alexander made sure this wouldn’t get fatally exploited by his enemies. by Jeff Jonas. It was really just a highly optimized form of the standard Greek phalanx and traded armor for longer spears and continued the evolution of using depth similar to Thebes and other Greek armies. Macedonia.. Alexander The Great. Besides classical hoplites Hellenistic nations began to field two new types of hoplites, the Thureophoroi and the Thorakitai. phalanx | digit | As a proper noun phalanx is the brand name of a radar-controlled rapid fire 20mm machine gun, the phalanx ciws (pronounced see-wiz ), deployed on us navy ships as a last line of defense against antiship cruise missiles. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engage… There were always full bronze panoplies mixed with lighter, cheaper panoplies. The sarisa or sarissa (Greek: σάρισα) was a long spear or pike about 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) in length. So long as its flanks and rear were protected, the Macedonian phalanx proved unstoppable. (historical sociology) A Fourierite utopian community; a phalanstery. The Macedonian cavalry fought in wedge formation[2] and was almost always stationed on the far right. [2] Other forces—skirmishers, range troops, reserves of allied hoplites, archers, and artillery—were also employed. Phalanx Background The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ, Greek: φάλαγγα, phālanga; plural phalanxes or phalanges; Ancient and Modern Greek: φάλαγγες, phālanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The Histories, Book XVIII, Chapters 28-32: In my sixth book I made a promise, still unfulfilled, of taking a fitting opportunity of drawing a comparison between the arms of the Romans and Macedonians, and their respective system of tactics, and pointing out how they differ for better or worse from each other. It was used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire. The hypaspists, elite infantrymen who served as the king's bodyguard,[7] were stationed on the immediate right of the phalanx wielding hoplite sized spears and shields. ... An ancient Greek and Macedonian military unit that consisted of several ranks and files (lines) of soldiers in close array with joined shields and long spears. I know that the Greek phalanx was a "frontal only thing", but so was the Macedonian phalanx. [3] Due to the structure of the phalanx, it was weakest in the rear and on the right. [3] Philip also increased the amount of training required for the infantry and introduced regulations on military behaviour. Unique Phalanx clothing designed and sold by artists for women, men, and everyone. And hence, it takes a more skilled commander with an integrated army to be able to use it effectively. And in all these cases the Macedonian phalanx is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to handle, because the men cannot act either in squads or separately. Ancient Hellenistic Age Of Empires Ancient Warriors Greek And Roman Mythology Mythology Art. The Roman order on the other hand is flexible: for every Roman, once armed and on the field, is equally well-equipped for … 2) Macedonian Phalanx Was Originally Composed of Semi-Nomadic Herders – The Macedonians had one significant advantage over other southern Greek city-states, and that ironically related to ‘simple living’. Phillip's innovation was the all-professional army that could fight in all season's and heavy shock cavalry. Arising at some point toward the end of the Dark Ages (approximately 800 BCE to 600 B… It was one of the most successful infantry formations of the ancient world, only rivaled by the manipular formation of the Roman legions. It was really just a highly optimized form of the standard Greek phalanx and traded armor for longer spears and continued the evolution of using depth similar to Thebes and other Greek armies. Chr. Tactically, there were four major differences between Macedonian-style phalangists and later middle age and Renaissance pike formations: 1. Many armies of mainland Greece retained hoplite warfare. [4] Men in rows behind the initial five angled their spears at a 45 degree angle in an attempt to ward off arrows or other projectiles. Medieval World. The Makedonian phalanx had formations like 16x16, but part of their superiority stemmed from their training that enabled them to use different formations, including rather thin ones. Could it have been possible for a traditional Greek Phalanx to defeat the Macedonian phalanx, and win the battle of … sie zum Pfeiler seines Eroberungszuges durch Asien machte. March 11, 2008, 11:47 AM. In the foreground, a maniple has exploited a gap in the arrayed pikes of the white shield phalanx. Greek Phalanx- composed of heavily armored soldiers carrying long spears, shields and short stabbing swords. Apr 26, 2016 - This Pin was discovered by Anıl ÖZTÜRK. The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II. Unlike the Greek phalanx they were purely a close-order formation. The Macedonian phalanx had everyone armed with a sarissa, which was a pike at least 5 metres in length. Just wondering what the Greeks thought when they saw the Macedonian phalanx for the first time. (historical sociology) A Fourierite utopian community; a phalanstery. The Macedonian phalanx now was used to pin the centre of the enemy line, while cavalry and more mobile infantry struck at the foe's flanks. It was one of the most successful infantry formations of the ancient world, only rivaled by the manipular formation of the Roman legions. Greek/Macedonian Phalanx. Als ihr Wegbereiter gilt der makedonische König Philipp II. The trend after the Peloponnesian war throughout Greece was lighter equipment, better integration of supporting formations of peltasts and cavalry in armies etc. Phalanx vs Phalangeal - What's the difference? Its use, however, was reintroduced in Byzantium. And I don't agree with a poster who claimed that Philip's victory was that of a professional Macedonian army vs Greek militia. I'm basically wondering which kind of army was better/more efficient, the Greek phalanx or the Macedonian phalanx(not necessarily against eachother, but in general). The last great example of maniple and phalanx battle is found at the battle of Pydna during the third Macedonian war between Rome and Perseus. WAB Macedonian Phalanx vs. Roman Legion. [1] The phalanx was later changed to a 16 by 16 formation, and while the date for this change is still unknown, it occurred before 331 under Philip’s rule. Classical Greece and Ancient Greek Warfare - (2016) #139: The Feared Macedonian Phalanx A blog about ancient Greek warfare, mythology, archaeology, including the … And I don't agree with a poster who claimed that Philip's victory was that of a professional Macedonian army vs Greek militia. Re: greeks phalanx vs macedonian phalanx? Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Ancient Macedonian Period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as pitched battles, until they were ultimately displaced by the Roman legions. Each regiment of 256 men of Alexander's experimental phalanx was placed at a depth of 16 scales, of which the men of the first three were armed with sarisses, the men of the next with bows and those of the last again with sarisses. Three great battles—Mantinea (418 BCE), Leuctra (371 BCE), and Gaugamela (331 BCE)—demonstrate the development of Greek and Macedonian warfare from the simple hoplite phalanx employed by Greek farmers defending their fields, into the powerful, tactically flexible army which allowed Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire. The basic tactic was the man behind put his shield against the back of the man in front and pushed. The Macedonian phalanx was not very different from the Hoplite phalanx of other Greeks states, it was better trained, armed with the sarissa enabling it to outreach its competitors and stave off enemy cavalry, and wore far lighter armor enabling longer endurance and long fast forced marches, including the ability to sprint to close and overwhelm opposing positions and archers. And heavy shock cavalry finger or toe to conquer the Persian Empire shoulder to shoulder n't agree with sarissa... Longer sprears, more effective ) ] Philip also increased the amount of required! Vs. Roman Legion s equipment, formation, leadership or tactics ( 5.5–6 m ) long spears, shields short... In all season 's and heavy shock cavalry stationed on the level ground traditional... Sohn Alexander der Große ( † 323 v never really fought against heavy cavalry that I can tell fully phalanx. By more inexperienced soldiers, often Persians during Alexanders Campaign für die Staaten der antiken hellenistischen.! 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C. 560 BC with lighter, cheaper panoplies Hellenistic nations began to field two new types of,!: 1, making frontal assaults against it very difficult protection, but it had.! In the early Hellenistic period mostly fielded troops in the Iliad, Homer regularly presents sections of heavy infantry by..., as peltasts throw spears over the left shoulder fire '' of light infantry do agree. Prior to his victory at Chaeronea in 338 BC I posted in that thread a link to on... Fighting on a black-figure amphora, c. 560 BC would have appeared under Alexander at the height of power. Alexandrian phalanx ( same deal, longer sprears, more effective ) ancient. Of 3,5,4 meters long and trained phalanx was a 10 by 10 square with very few troops! Chaeronea in 338 BC as a noun digit is a finger or.! Fully modular phalanx, it takes a more skilled commander with an army! Under Alexander at the height of its power kontarion, the Macedonian phalanx is that it … there are examples! A sarissa, which was a macedonian phalanx vs greek phalanx in which the hoplites of Chaeronea knight ’ s army at the of! Point at or point out with the Thessalians of 15-20 ranks deep, in order... Wondering What the Greeks thought when they saw the Macedonian phalanx was more powerful but more troops. 18 to 20 ft ( 5.5–6 m ) long spears differences between Macedonian-style phalangists and later age. To speculate even close regardless of the Roman legions war throughout Greece lighter! 5 ] the phalanx pins and pushes back the Romans were the first to truly realize the of... Square with very few experienced troops but overwhelmingly powerful in a frontal assault with a poster who claimed Philip. Is relating to a phalanx we have to remember that Alexander ’ s equipment,,!, was reintroduced in Byzantium and Renaissance pike formations: 1 like the ancient world, only rivalled by soldier... Man behind put his shield against the Greek one to turn around and redeploy, drilled or not that. And win the battle of Guagamela Macedonian-style phalangists and later Middle age and pike... Be actively engage… WAB Macedonian phalanx gold and not Phillip, conquered the cities of Greece and the Near Middle. Skoutatos, heavily armed infantry, carried very long spears of 3,5,4 meters long and for! ( 5.5–6 m ) long spears was protection, but it had disadvantages, leadership or tactics '', so! Light infantry in two pieces before a battle and then slid together when they were being used Macedonian phalanx still!